In this article we will consider the problems of optical fiber including splicing, cleaning connectors, fiber bending, fiber identification and Connector loss.
This week, we released the first Cisco Annual Internet Report (2018 – 2023), a global, regional and country-level forecast with analyses that assess digital transformation across fixed broadband, Wi-Fi, and mobile (3G and below, 4G, 5G) networks. This comprehensive study has been developed by the same analyst team that produced the Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Forecast for more than a decade. The new report provides quantitative projections (over a 5-year period) on the growth of Internet users, devices and connections as well as network performance and new application requirements. Qualitative analyses and assessments are also provided in four strategic areas: applications, security, infrastructure transformation, and empowering employees and teams.
IoT in industry is a rapidly developing area. Numerous IoT research and application projects have been done in recent years. However an important question to be further addressed is on value creation by IoT industry applications. IoT applications in the sense of this paper are solutions using IoT technologies to improve industrial manufacturing processes, enable new ways to operate production plants, offer an optimized infrastructure, reduce operational cost or improve human safety in industrial areas.
This paper discusses future evolution scenarios of PON systems for residential-service application as well as for large business and mobile backhaul applications given the typical network configurations currently deployed.
All new 5G mobile technology is expected to be operational by 2020. This time, it is therefore crucial to know the direction of research and developments enabling 5G technology. This paper provides an inclusive and comprehensive analysis of recent developmental endeavors toward 5G. It highlights salient features, i.e., flexibility, accessibility, and cloud-based service offerings, those are going to ensure the futuristic mobile communication technology as the dominant protocol for global communication.